First, in adolescence under normal living conditions, the instinct of self-preservation is not enough.
First, in adolescence under normal living conditions, the instinct of self-preservation is not enough.
A student of a higher educational institution is a young person who is characterized by a professional orientation, prepares for a highly qualified performance of the functions of a specialist in certain professional fields [9; 185].
Student age is mainly in late adolescence or early adulthood. At this time, the physical maturation of the body ends, and the degree of spiritual maturity is acquired, which allows you to independently decide on the choice of profession, participation in industrial work after graduating from school or university. In adolescence, value-oriented activities are sharply intensified. Whether it is about knowing one’s own qualities, or learning new knowledge, or about relationships with seniors and peers, the young man is particularly concerned about their evaluation and tries to build their behavior on the basis of consciously chosen or mastered criteria and norms [3 ; 42].
Adolescence, according to BG Ananiev, is a sensitive period for the development of basic sociogenic potentials of man, the most favorable for the completion of the formation of personality and the establishment of its psychophysical forces. In the course of longitudinal research it was found that the student age has the highest opportunity to develop intellectual complex, sensory processes and perception, general reactivity and neuro-dynamics, the greatest plasticity in the formation of complex psychomotor and other skills.
In adolescence, the highest speed of RAM and switching of attention, the ability to solve verbal-logical problems and so on. This is the "golden age" of man for the high development of a set of functional levels, the achievement of the highest results, which are based on all previous processes of its biological, psychological and social development [1; 5-6].
II Mechnikov pointed to two main features of youth. First, in adolescence under normal living conditions, the instinct of self-preservation is not enough. Therefore, young people often take risks because of small things, not caring about the consequences of their actions. Secondly, adolescence is characterized by some natural disharmony. Thus, desires and aspirations develop earlier than the will and strength of character, and in such conditions the young man is not always able to get rid of some excessive and unnecessary desires of desires [8; 35].
It is worth noting that the student’s personality develops and changes during training. Already freshmen who have recently moved away from school graduates have new qualitative traits: increased self-esteem: "I am a student, not a schoolboy"; rich interest in various fields of knowledge; new in personal views on members of the opposite sex; relatively greater personal freedom and independence from parents.
First-year students are more willing than second-year students to participate in a variety of community activities. They are more susceptible to the influence of teachers and public organizations, it is easier for them to entrust any business, it is easier to demand from them. In the second year, students are already adapting to new university circumstances. They become more practical in https://123helpme.me/narrative-essay-topics/ the distribution of time and scholarships, feel more independent and, at the same time, responsible, think more about the specialty, etc. [3; 43].
The student as a person is characterized by the most active development of moral and aesthetic feelings, the completion of the formation and stabilization of character. It is especially important that this is a period of mastering the full range of social roles of an adult: civic, socio-political, occupational, gender, family and others. This age is associated with the beginning of "economic activity" by which demographers understand the inclusion of man in independent production activities, the beginning of a work history, starting a family and solving related financial and economic problems.
In the complex modern socio-economic conditions, many students are forced to combine education with work, which for them is not so much a means of self-affirmation and self-realization, as a source of livelihood. Students have, on the one hand, the transformation of motivation, the whole system of value orientations, on the other – the intensive formation of special abilities in connection with professionalization [1; 8].
However, the student age is also characterized by the fact that the great potential for achieving the optimum development of the moral, intellectual and physical spheres is not fully realized by every student. This is due to both the lack of development in 17-19 years of the ability to consciously self-regulate behavior, and the hidden illusion that this increase in strength will last "forever" that a better life is still ahead, and therefore everything dreamed of can be easily achieved.
The manifestation of this, in particular, is that some students study from "session to session" do not show much activity in learning, do not need self-education and self-improvement, their attention is mainly focused on hedonistic hobbies [9; 186-187].
Ananyev BG On psychophysiology of student age // Modern psychological and pedagogical problems of higher school. – L., 1974. -328p. Barabanova VV, Zelenova ME Representations of students about the future as an aspect of their personal and professional self-determination // Psychological science and education. – 2002. – No. 2. – P. 28-41, Duachenko MI, Kandybovich LA Psychology of higher school: Textbook. manual for universities. – 2nd ed., Reworked. and ext. – Mn., 1981. – 383s. Zeer E. F., Symanyuk E. E. Crises of professional development of personality // Psychological Journal. – T. 18. – No. 6. – S. 35-44.
Professional self-awareness: concept and genesis. Abstract
The concept of professional self-awareness. Genesis of professional self-awareness. Preschool childhood
The current state of development of society requires psychological science to solve complex problems, in particular, the development of tools for diagnosing personality traits and promoting its harmonious development. Of particular importance is the need for a personal approach to the formation of the personality of a professional, the development of his professional self-awareness (IV Dubrovina, LV Dolynska, SD Maksimenko, NV Chepeleva, etc.).
Analysis of most programs, textbooks for introduction to various specialties shows that students while studying at the institution get acquainted with professionally important personality traits that determine the structure of their professional self-awareness. However, which of these qualities should be dominant in the future work of specialists, what are the real qualities of each of them – this is a question that is insufficiently studied in psychology.
Therefore, today the awareness of young people of the requirements of the profession and the ability to relate them to the characteristics of their personality is seen as one of the necessary conditions that promotes an active attitude to choosing a profession, building professional plans  , confidence in the correct path , as well as professional self-improvement, self-education .
The concept of professional self-awareness
It is known that the psychological content of the process of professional self-determination is not only in the formation of the focus on the choice of a particular profession, but also in the search for subjective reasons for their choice. Therefore, an integral component of professional self-determination is professional self-awareness, which means self-awareness of the individual as a subject of future professional activity.
The form of manifestation of professional self-awareness of young people is mainly awareness of their social position, their interests, inclinations, abilities, characteristics, level of their general and special readiness. Thus awareness of the mental features is inseparably connected with a certain relation to itself, with self-estimation. Therefore, self-awareness is not only self-knowledge, but also an emotional attitude to oneself, the integral result of which is self-esteem.
It should be noted that the interest of the individual to himself as a future professional does not arise spontaneously, it is in adolescence, and passes in its development a number of stages. In this regard, it is advisable to consider the genesis of professional self-awareness in the process of professional self-determination.
Genesis of professional self-awareness Preschool childhood
Everyone knows the desire of children in their games to imitate adults and reproduce their actions, activities. In preschool age, story-based role-playing games are becoming widespread, some of which are professionally oriented. Children play, assigning themselves the roles of doctors, salesmen, educators, drivers, cooks, and so on.
Important for further professional self-determination are labor actions – the implementation of simple operations for the care of clothing, plants, cleaning, and so on. These labor actions form an interest in work, enrich children’s knowledge of the responsibilities of adults.
Knowledge about the work of adults has a positive effect on further professional self-determination. For their formation, it is desirable to observe the activities of adults, and then describe the content of these activities.
The result of professional role-playing games, performing simpler types of work, observing the activities of adults is the "self-determination" of preschoolers based on the distinction between types of work and comparison of different professions.
Junior school age
The psychological feature of younger students is the imitation of adults. Hence the focus on the profession of authoritative adults for them: teachers, parents, relatives, family acquaintances.
The second important feature of children of this age is the motivation of achievements. The child’s awareness of their abilities, capabilities on the basis of previous experience of educational, play, work leads to the formation of ideas about the desired profession.
The development of abilities at the end of primary school age leads to an increase in individual differences between children, which affects a significant expansion of the range of professional preferences.
Educational and labor activities contribute to the development of children’s imagination, which enriches the knowledge about the content of different types of work. The child has professional fantasies – the prerequisites for professional self-determination.
At this age, the foundations of moral attitude to different types of work are laid, the formation of a system of personal values, which determine the selective attitude of adolescents to different professions.