Statistics support this opinion.
Youth and children’s movement in Ukraine: formation and features. Abstract
International approaches to the formation of youth policy in the world. State youth policy in Ukraine its essence and features. Regulatory framework for regulating the activities of youth and children’s NGOs. Charter – as a component of the regulatory subsystem of the youth movement
International approaches to the formation of youth policy in the world
In Ukraine in the 1980s, there was a change in philosophy from the ideals of a society of common grace to an increase in personal responsibility. There is an understanding that young people cannot be considered as a single homogeneous group and that individual and flexible approaches must be applied to them. This has led to a tendency to decentralize youth policy-making with the delegation of responsibilities to local authorities and the involvement of local youth organizations in this work.
Each country has its own set of political goals and policy tools, but among them there are four general areas:
promoting youth participation in the creation of youth policy in the state; protection of the most vulnerable groups of youth; prevention of anti-social behavior that harms health; ensuring and protecting the political, legal and social rights of young people.
Given these main areas, we can talk about approaches to the formation of state youth policy. Each country has its own approaches and policies for youth.
However, there are two main approaches, in particular:
In practice, these two approaches can be used together to form a holistic strategy. Consider each of these approaches.
The reactive approach assumes that the state responds to problems – the youth (in the political sense) becomes an unreliable part of society (the electorate). Political measures are paternalistic (from the Latin paternal). It is a showy charity, a pretended care for the needs of young people. The purpose of this approach is to define the prevailing social norms for young people, which young people need to adhere to in society. This approach can only be effective in quality "extraordinary" means of addressing the existing or emerging needs of vulnerable youth groups. The problem is that reactive policies are carried out separately, without forming a coherent system and strategy.
The proactive approach, which has been preferred in recent years, is closely linked to discussions about the fate of young people. It provides measures that would allow young people to use their abilities and participate in the development of society, including in areas and areas that are directly related to their interests. This means that young people are directly involved in the development and implementation of youth policy.
Young people are a heterogeneous segment of the population living in a constantly changing world. Therefore, the programs offered to them by the state should reflect this heterogeneity and diversity. For the effective formation of approaches in the field of youth problems it is necessary to take into account the needs of different categories of youth. Also important is the need for clear boundaries for youth policy, as well as a national coordinating body. buy a compare and contrast essay In the 1990s, many countries established youth national councils. For example: Albanian National Youth Council, Croatian Youth League, Slovak Youth Assembly.
It should be noted that in Western Europe there is a growing need for public youth policy, which would include specific activities and programs implemented at the local level, because young people are a rather heterogeneous group that is constantly changing, so their proposed programs should reflect this heterogeneity and involvement of various groups of young people. This is most effective at the local level.
State youth policy in Ukraine its essence and features
Until recently, young people were not interested in public policy in this very important area, but today the situation has changed dramatically. Statistics support this opinion. In particular, in 2000, only 12% of young people surveyed often discussed issues of public youth policy, and 57% did so from time to time. A subsequent survey confirmed that a year later, the percentage of young people interested in this field was about 40%. This topic was the most relevant for young people, who assess their financial situation as very low. 68% of respondents answered the questions in the affirmative.
The answers of the respondents give grounds to conclude that more educated young people more often discuss the state policy towards the younger generation. This topic is of interest to 70% of young people with higher education and only 52% – with incomplete. Although a small number of young people are members of public youth organizations, they are the ones who are most interested in solving youth problems. Only every 10th member of the youth organization stated that he never discusses them among colleagues, while among those who are not members of the youth organization – a third.
The first normative document on youth policy in Ukraine is the Declaration "On the general principles of state youth policy in Ukraine" of December 15, 1992. It states that the state youth policy in Ukraine is a priority and specific direction of the state, carried out in the interests of young people, and taking into account the capabilities of Ukraine, its economic, social, historical, cultural development and world experience of state support for youth.
Thus, the state youth policy is a systemic activity of the state in relation to a specific individual, youth, youth movement, which is carried out in the legislative, executive, judicial spheres.
The purpose of state youth policy is to create socio-economic, political, organizational, legal conditions and guarantees for vital self-determination, intellectual, moral, physical development of youth, realization of its creative potential both in their own interests and in the interests of society.
State youth policy applies to citizens of Ukraine aged 14 to 28, regardless of origin, social and property status, race and nationality, sex, education, language, religion, gender and occupation. The youth policy of the state is considered as a policy as well as a practical activity of such subjects as: the state, its bodies, which implement such a policy; political parties, social movements, associations of citizens; the youngest people themselves.
The state policy regarding youth public organizations has certain tasks, directions, as well as a mechanism for its formation and implementation. In the Declaration "On the general principles of state youth policy in Ukraine" 5 main tasks are indicated, and 2 of them directly affect the youth and children’s movement.
Thus, the tasks of the state youth policy regarding youth public organizations are formulated as follows:
creation of necessary conditions for strengthening of legal and material guarantees concerning activity of youth organizations for full-fledged social formation and development of youth; coordination of efforts of all organizations and social institutions working with youth.
The same document considers 7 main principles of state youth policy, one of them (the fourth) concerns the youth movement, namely: the development of youth initiative, youth movement, increasing the level of participation of young people in public and political life.
This document describes the implementation of state youth policy in various spheres of youth life (in the socio-economic sphere, socio-political sphere, in the field of education and culture, in the family sphere). Consider the implementation of state youth policy in relation to youth organizations. The state and its local bodies should support and stimulate the activities of youth organizations focused on solving the problems of youth in its and the state’s interests.
State support for youth organizations can be material and organizational. This includes:
exemption of youth organizations, enterprises, institutions and establishments created by them from taxation; free transfer to youth organizations of buildings, premises, material base necessary for work with youth; exemption of youth organizations from paying for land use; various loans and subsidies to providing youth organizations on a favorable basis; creation of conditions for youth organizations for exchanges, wide cooperation with youth organizations of other countries.
In the National Youth Support Program for 2003-2008 in item 7 "Development of civic activity of youth, ensuring constant cooperation of local governments with youth and children’s public organizations" The implementation of the state youth policy in the issue of youth and children’s organizations has been somewhat expanded and concretized, namely:
creation of national and regional centers of youth and children’s organizations, organization of leaders and activists of youth and children’s public organizations, support of mass media at youth and children’s public organizations.
Regulatory framework for regulating the activities of youth and children’s NGOs
The Basic Law of Ukraine – The Constitution establishes the basic principles that define and guarantee the existence of public organizations in Ukraine (Articles 36 and 37).
Normative acts that regulate the statutory activities of organizations are called statutory legislation. In Ukraine at the moment, in relation to the youth movement, the status legislation is:
Law of Ukraine "About citizens’ associations" (June 16, 1992). Law of Ukraine "About youth and children’s public organizations" (December 1, 1998). Law of Ukraine "On promoting the social formation and development of youth in Ukraine" (February 5, 2003).
The first of these laws marked the beginning of the formation and operation of public associations, including youth and children’s organizations.