07 Jun 2020

The abstract presents the biological characteristics of the main fruit and berry crops

The abstract presents the biological characteristics of the main fruit and berry crops

In this regard, we should switch to the prospects of migration of radionuclides, for example, in the Kiev Sea and soils of other contaminated areas. As long as these metals were in insoluble form in water bodies and soil, their threat to living things was relatively insignificant, and in soluble form it may already be incompatible with life. At pH 6.0 and below, mercury, for example, is completely converted into soluble forms.

Sometimes we are not tempted to rejoice when we find rivers and reservoirs where the water is very clear and transparent algae grow like burdock at the bottom. But do not rush to rejoice. Bribery transparency of water may be due to the fact that this water is almost "dead". So first look at whether the willows are lush, dried up around the willow, and whether the frogs are jumping into the water. Are there lobsters and crayfish? Is there a big fish? When you get a positive answer to all these questions, then rejoice, because you are lucky. If not – look for a nearby thermal power plant, chemical plant, plant for the production of protein and vitamin concentrates, sugar or tanneries or livestock complex. Or something else, whose careless management has led to the acidification of water. And then to the extinction of many living organisms.

And which is quite logical – about our health … Further pollution of fresh water with acids and other toxic organisms is also terrible because the available water for living organisms on the planet is not so much – less than 0.014 percent of its total amount. Therefore, the problem of providing people with quality water, especially drinking water, is becoming more acute.

And it’s not just about people, about the whole plant and animal complex, on the well-being of which we also depend. Thus, on acidic soils, poorly developed cultivated agricultural plants (especially legumes and oilseeds) are the first to die in the forests. In the plants themselves, acids accumulate in the crop, which, when they enter the body of an animal or a person with food, cause its acidification, which in the clinic is called the acidosis of the body.

Such animals and humans have growth retardation, their immune status is suppressed (therefore, susceptibility to disease increases). Newborns are especially sensitive to acidosis. They have indigestion, develop diarrhea, bronchopneumonia, ammonium toxicosis, which leads to increased mortality. Acidosis dramatically complicates the course of the disease in diabetics and gout, also disrupts calcium metabolism, which leads to diseases of the skeleton, teeth.

In explaining these phenomena, I would like to point out that, much like plants (which need carbon dioxide), animals are also very sensitive to changes in the concentration of both carbon dioxide and bound carbon dioxide in the form of sodium and potassium bicarbonates. Carbon bicarbonate CO2 is incorporated into organic compounds of human and animal tissues to a large extent – as in plants. Inhibition of this process also negatively affects their growth and development.

This is especially noticeable when the concentration of bicarbonate in the blood decreases. Normally, the concentration of sodium bicarbonate in the blood in humans or animals is approximately 0.1 percent. It mainly provides a weakly alkaline environment for the blood. When excess acids enter the body, it is the sodium bicarbonate that first begins to neutralize them. Therefore, its concentration decreases, which negatively affects a number of metabolic processes and causes painful conditions in the body. Especially with severe blood loss, burns, diabetes and gout.

During these periods, people should change their diet accordingly. Acute acidosis also develops in those who eat a relatively large amount of meat, cheese and eggs and almost do not include vegetables and fruits in their diet. Excessive beer consumption and heavy alcohol intoxication also contribute to acidosis. An excellent antacid remedy is to include vegetables and fruits, mineral waters such as Borjomi, Svalyava, Luhansk and other so-called alkaline waters in your diet.

Widespread use in animal husbandry of such feeds as silage and sour pulp, also often causes the development in the body of animals of an acidosis with all the above symptoms and consequences. This must be borne in mind, especially in warm winters, when the acidity of these feeds increases sharply.

Fluorocarbons (freons), which are widely used in the refrigeration, perfume and other industries, also make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect. They have been in the atmosphere since the 1930s and have been steadily rising since then. It is important to note: despite their relatively low concentration, freon molecules absorb heat 16 thousand times more efficiently than carbon dioxide. However, the topic of CFCs, the protection of the ozone layer of the Earth is very specific, ambiguous and needs a separate and very serious conversation.

The world community is taking action. It is quite natural that the issue of the greenhouse effect, and hence the state of the air basin, in general, the natural complex of our – essentially such a fragile and vulnerable – planet attracts the attention not only of government officials, scientists, the public, but the entire international community. It is clear that such a global problem can and should be solved only comprehensively, on a large scale, based on modern approaches and technologies, maximizing the intellectual, scientific, technical, legal, social potential of all states and peoples of the blue planet Earth … And the https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ beginning of such work has already been laid.

As you know, in June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) hosted the UN Conference on Environment and Development. Representatives of 176 states, including Ukraine, took part in it at the highest level. One of the important results of the Conference was the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was signed by almost 160 countries. The purpose of the Convention is to limit the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere at a level that will stop the dangerous anthropogenic impact on the climate system. Ukraine signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992, and in 1996 the Verkhovna Rada ratified it.

The next stage was the Conference of the Parties to the Convention in Kyoto, Japan, held in December 1997. The Protocol to the Convention is considered, which is designed to define the specific obligations of individual countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, deadlines, control mechanisms, etc.

Although the Kyoto Conference was held in a rather tense atmosphere, it resulted in the adoption of the text of the Protocol. According to this document, 34 developed countries, including Ukraine, are obliged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 5.2 percent by 2012. In particular, the United States – by 7 percent, the European Union – by 8, Japan – by 6 percent, Ukraine, given the objective difficulties, is obliged not to exceed greenhouse gas emissions at the level of 1990.

As a result of the general economic downturn, hydrocarbon consumption in Ukraine today has decreased by about a third compared to 1990. Accordingly, greenhouse gas emissions decreased. So, formally, our country complies with the requirements of the UN Convention on Climate Change. Of course, this does not mean that our state should not take effective measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

After all, the Convention is of exceptional importance for Ukraine in the context of socio-economic reforms. The problem of climate change affects all sectors of the economy, regardless of ownership, every citizen. Preliminary assessments of the vulnerability of ecosystems and some economic sectors suggest that climate change in Ukraine is likely to have significant consequences, in particular for water, forest resources, agriculture, the Black Sea and Azov coastal zones.

Taking into account the decisions taken in Rio de Janeiro and Kyoto, economic and environmental reforms are being carried out in Ukraine, the structural, scientific-methodological, legal, and economic foundations of the state policy based on the principles of sustainable development are being laid …

An important role here is played by the education of the population in a thrifty attitude to natural, in particular energy resources, the creation of favorable conditions for the active activities of non-governmental environmental organizations.


Fruit and berry crops: biological characteristics. Abstract

The abstract presents the biological characteristics of the main fruit and berry crops

In Ukraine, the most widespread among all fruit trees is apple, which occupies more than 70% of the area of ​​orchards.

The apple tree is well adapted to different growing conditions, has a large number of species and varieties, which allows it to be grown in a variety of conditions, is characterized by durability, high productivity (100-300 kg of fruit), valuable healing and dietary qualities of the fruit.

The apple tree belongs to the botanical genus Malus Mill., Family Rosaceae, order Rosales. Apple tree belongs to the group of grain breeds and has 59 species and up to 20 thousand varieties.

Most cultivars belong to the species Malus domestica Borkh., Which is a collective species obtained from a cross between different wild species. The most probable ancestors of cultivated apple varieties were such wild species as forest, low, Nedzvetsky, berry, eastern, Sievers, Pallas, Turkmen, and others. All of them are of practical importance in modern fruit growing, but in Ukraine they are found mainly in the forest and low (paradise, dusen).

Home apple is characterized by high winter hardiness. Under normal summer conditions and gradual cooling of the tree of summer and autumn varieties can withstand frosts down to minus 35-40 oC, while winter varieties – up to minus 30-35 oC. Moreover, frost resistance of trees on seed rootstocks is higher than on clonal ones.

Apple – a light-loving plant, can not withstand shady places. It grows well on all types of soils, except for soils with close occurrence of sub-groundwater, deep sands, stony soils, etc. Drought resistant, which makes it possible to cultivate it in the southern dry areas.

Apple tree is a durable species. The average age of trees is 50-60 years, and sometimes 100 or more. The duration of use of apple trees on seed rootstocks – 30-40 years, on undersized – about 20-25 years. House apple on vigorous seed and clonal rootstocks grows in the form of a tree up to 12-14 m, their root system, depending on soil properties, deepens by 1.5-2 m.